Voice and causative verbs


voice: is destroyed/was destroyed, is/are/were being destroyed, has/have/had been destroyed, modal(should)+be +pp, modal(should)+perfect.

A great deal of property is destroyed by hurricanes each year.

Several new proposals are being considered by committee.

These contracts should be signed by the manager today. 

Causative verbs:

A (one person) causes B(a second person) to do something for A (first person) by paying, asking or forcing. Have , get and make are three causative verbs.

Have/ get: have+ person+ simple verb, get +person+ infinitive(active). Have/get+ usually thing +pp(passive).

Mary had/got john wash the car. Mary got/had the car washed. Mary has had a friend type all of her papers.

George is getting his teachers to give him a make up exam.  John is having his father contact the officials. The editor had the contributors attend a composition workshop. Mary got her husband arrested. Rick was having his hair cut when john called.

  Make: its stronger than have /get, it means force.

The robber made the teller give him the money. The teacher always makes the children stay in their seats. George made his son be quiet in the theatre. The president was making is making his cabinet members sigh this document. The teacher had made the students’ parents sign release forms before he let the students jump on the trampoline.

Let: means allow/permit. John  let his daughter  swim with her books. Teacher let the students leave class early. He is letting  the students hand in the papers on Monday. We are going to let her write the paper. Mr brown always lets his children watch cartoons on Saturday mornings.

Help: means assist. John helped Mary wash the dishes. Jorge helped the old woman with the packages (to) find taxi. The teacher helped Carolina find the research materials. 

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