Clause !

​relative clauses:  

The relative pronoun: that/which(things), who/whom(people),whose(usually people). In speaking, that can be used for people but not in formal written English. 

restrictive and non restrictive clauses:

Restrictive: weeds that float to the surface should be removed before they decay. (only those that float to the surface)

Nonrestrictive: my car, which is very large, uses too much gasoline.

optional relative clause reduction: removing relative pronoun +verb be + other auxiliary.

Before relative clauses in the passive voice: this is the z value   which was obtained from the table areas under the normal curve. Or. This is the z value obtained from the table area under the normal curve. 

Before prepositional phrases: the beaker that Is on the counter contains a solution. Or. The beaker on the counter contains a solution.

Before progressive ( continuous) verb structure: the girl who is running down the street might be in trouble. Or. The girl running down the street might be in trouble. 

Mr. Jackson, who is a professor, is travelling in the Mideast this year.

Mr. Jackson, a professor, is travelling in the Mideast this year.

other uses of that.

Optional that:

That is optional after –say, tell, think, believe.

John said that he was leaving next week. Or. John said he was leaving next week. 

Obligatory that: after the following verbs- mention, declare, report, state.

The mayor declared that on june the first he would announce the results of the search. Mentioned that/ report that/state that.

That clause: it is well known that many residents of  the third world country are dying. Or. That many residents of third world countries is dying is well known. That john would do such a thing surprises me.

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